Indian Frontier Policy
Books about the history of India discuss the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the fertile Indus Valley Civilisation, to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilization; as well as the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism. The Indian sub-continent was united under the Gupta Empire (320-550 AD), which is termed India’s Golden Age. Other empires on the sub-continent included the Vakataka Empire, the Kamarupa Empire,the Harsha Empire, the Pallava Empire, and the Kadamba Empire. During the Medieval period new empires evolved including the Chalukya Empire, Rashtrakuta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara Empire, Pala Empire and Chola Empire, the last extending to South East Asia and covering much of contemporary Indonesia. The Muslim population grew from Muslim invasion around 632 AD. The Vijayanagar Empire rose to prominence through attempts by south Indian powers to resist Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century, and was succeeded by the Mughal Empire, which in turn made way for the Maratha Empire and Sikh Empire in the early 18th and 19th centuries respectively. The British East India Company arrived at the start of the 17th century and after the Anglo-Marathra Wars led to British control that resulted in the rebellion of 1857. The British Raj lasted from 1858 to 1947, when Indian territories gained independence, after being partitioned into the Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan.